Hi. How can I change data into the format, in which the `sine.txt`

is formed? https://pennylane.ai/qml/demos/quantum_neural_net.html

Best,

Risto

Hi. How can I change data into the format, in which the `sine.txt`

is formed? https://pennylane.ai/qml/demos/quantum_neural_net.html

Best,

Risto

Hey @_risto,

Have you tried numpyâ€™s `savetxt`

function? You might have to specify the delimiter (as far as I can see `sine.txt`

has a whitespace as delimiter).

Otherwise, you can hand-code any format using the standard python `write`

functionality.

1 Like

Hi @_risto,

Itâ€™s possible to use any smooth function here, doesnâ€™t have to be sine. However, different function types will show different behaviours when using a quantum modelâ€”and quantum models might require different amounts of resources (gates, layers, depth, etc) to fit different classes of functions.

It just happens that a sinusoid is a relatively simple example for a quantum model to fit (due to the underlying complex-number structure of quantum computing), so it is suitable as a toy example.

This is a very Interesting question.

The expressivity of quantum variational circuit has been explained in,

Quantum models as Fourier series â€” PennyLane

According to this article, the number of qubits and data-encoding layers determine the expressivity.

On the other hand, the number of variational layers would not affect.

Particular, in a single qubit circuit, altough we increase the number of variational layers, the expressivity canâ€™t grow.

To confirm it, I wrote a sample code.

```
#!pip install pennylane==0.16.0
#!pip install PennyLane-Lightning
import pennylane as qml
from pennylane import numpy as np
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
num_of_data = 64
X = np.random.uniform(high=2 * np.pi, size=(num_of_data,1))
Y = np.sin(X[:,0]) # Learn sin (x)
######## parameters #############
n_qubits = 2 ## num. of qubit
n_layers = 2 # num of q_layers
dev = qml.device("lightning.qubit", wires=n_qubits, shots=None) # define a device
# Note: lightning.qubits is faster but "pip install PennyLane-Lightning" is required.
# Initial circuit parameters
var_init = np.random.uniform(high=2 * np.pi, size=(n_layers, n_qubits, 3))
# Definition of a device
@qml.qnode(dev, diff_method='adjoint')
# Data encoding and variational ansatz
def quantum_neural_net(var, x):
qml.templates.AngleEmbedding(x, wires=range(n_qubits))
qml.templates.StronglyEntanglingLayers(var, wires=range(n_qubits))
return qml.expval(qml.PauliZ(0))
def square_loss(desired, predictions):
loss = 0
for l, p in zip(desired, predictions):
loss = loss + (l - p) ** 2
loss = loss / len(desired)
return loss
def cost(var, features, desired):
preds = [quantum_neural_net(var, x) for x in features]
return square_loss(desired, preds)
opt = qml.AdamOptimizer(0.05)
import time
hist_cost = []
var = var_init
for it in range(50):
t1 = time.time()
var, _cost = opt.step_and_cost(lambda v: cost(v, X, Y), var)
t2 = time.time()
elapsed_time = t2-t1
print("Iter:"+str(it)+", cost="+str(_cost.numpy()))
print(f"TimeďĽš{elapsed_time}")
hist_cost.append(_cost)
plt.plot(10*np.log10(hist_cost),'o-')
Y_pred = [quantum_neural_net(var, x) for x in X]
plt.plot(X[:,0],Y_pred,'o')
```

This circuit has a data-encoding layer and multiple variational layers.

It can learn sin(x).

However, it canâ€™t learn sin(2x)!

Even if we increase the number of variational layers, sin(2x) canâ€™t be fitted.

This is because the expressivity depends on the number of data-encoding layers, rather than variational layers.

It is effective to increase the number of data-encoding layers, namely, â€śdata re-uploadingâ€ť technique.

Circuit models should be carefully chosen to learn a target function.

Hi @Kuma-quant

Thank you for your input. What does that mean in practical approach, is it possible to use non-sine and if so, how?

Yes, you can fit a non-sine function if the variational circuit has sufficient expressivity.

The reason why we have focused to a sine function is that, various functions can be approximated as sum of sine functions with diffrent frequencies, known as â€śFourier series expansionâ€ť.

Fourier series - Wikipedia

Suppose the maximum frequency of a target (non-sine) function is r, in terms of fourier series.

When a variational circuit can approximate sin(rx), we can expect that the function can be fitted.

This is just my opinion and may be wrong, because Iâ€™m not expert.

1 Like