 # Ensemble classification with Forest and Qiskit devices : Parameters

Dear all,

Can someone please explain to me how the pre-trained set of parameters (params.npy file) were obtained?

If i understand correctly those parameters have to do with the state preparation stage in which we try to encode classical information to quantum states. In that case did you use the similar function:
def get_angles(x): from the “variational classifier demo” to obtain params?

Hey @NikSchet,

The `params` were obtained by training the hybrid model. For example, let’s define:

``````def softmax_ensemble(params, x_point=None):
results = qnodes(params, x=x_point)
softmax = torch.nn.functional.softmax(results, dim=1)
choice = torch.where(softmax == torch.max(softmax))
return softmax[choice]
``````

This function evaluates both circuits, converts to softmax vectors, and then returns the “most confident” vector (that is, the one with the largest entry). For example:

``````n_layers = 2
# the first index is for the two models
params = torch.tensor(np.random.random((2, n_layers, n_wires, 3)), requires_grad=True)

print(softmax_ensemble(params, x_train))
``````

The above gives a vector such as `[0.2624, 0.4455, 0.2921]`, denoting a 44.55% probability of class `1`.

This can be compared to the one-hot encoded version of `y_train`:

``````import tensorflow as tf
``````

For example, `y_soft = [1, 0, 0]`.

We then just need to define a cost function to compare the predicted vector with the target, for example:

``````def cost(params, y_point, x_point=None):
``````

This is a simple cost function that gives the absolute error.

Training is then as simple as:

``````opt = torch.optim.Adam([params], lr = 0.1)

for epoch in range(3):
for x_point, y_point in zip(x_train, y_soft):
c = cost(params, y_point=y_point, x_point=x_point)
c.backward()
opt.step()
``````

The training could be improved with random selection of points from the training set, batching, and use of a different cost function.

All the code together (also requires other parts of the tutorial to be run):

``````import tensorflow as tf

n_layers = 2
# the first index is for the two models
params = torch.tensor(np.random.random((2, n_layers, n_wires, 3)), requires_grad=True)

def softmax_ensemble(params, x_point=None):
results = qnodes(params, x=x_point)
softmax = torch.nn.functional.softmax(results, dim=1)
choice = torch.where(softmax == torch.max(softmax))
return softmax[choice]

def cost(params, y_point, x_point=None):

opt = torch.optim.Adam([params], lr = 0.1)

for epoch in range(3):
for x_point, y_point in zip(x_train, y_soft):